Menelaus (also Menelaos) is a figure from ancient Greek mythology and literature who was the king of Sparta and the husband of beautiful Helen, whose abduction by the Trojan prince Paris sparked off the legendary Trojan War. The story is most famously told in Homer"s Iliad where Menelaus persuades his brother Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, to khung a great army from all the Greek city-states and sail to Troy khổng lồ recapture Helen. During the war, Menelaus và Paris confront each other in a one-on-one fight. The Spartan king overwhelms Paris but the prince is saved by the goddess Aphrodite who whisks him from the scene in a magical cloud. The Greeks win the war and in Homer"s Odyssey, we are told of Menelaus" journey home with Helen, stopping on the way at Crete, Cyprus, & Egypt.

Family

In Greek mythology, Menelaus was the son of Atreus, the king of Mycenae và the younger brother of Agamemnon. In some traditions, the two brothers were the grandchildren of Atreus but were looked after by him when his son & their father Pleisthenes died prematurely. Their mother was Aerope, the daughter of Catreus, the king of Crete. The family union between Greece & Crete perhaps reflected a desire on the part of the Bronze Age Mycenaean Greeks to lớn claim some sort of cultural heritage from the earlier Minoan civilization on that island.


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As children, Menelaus and Agamemnon were forced lớn flee the family trang chủ following the dispute between Atreus and his brother Thyestes which ended in the murder of the latter"s children. This squabble led khổng lồ a curse on the house of Atreus and his descendants. Thyestes" other son Aegisthus (born out of an incestuous relationship with Thyestes" daughter Pelopia) then gained revenge by killing his uncle Atreus và obliging Agamemnon and Menelaus lớn seek refuge with Tyndareus, the king of Sparta.

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Tyndareus was a perfect host và adopted the two boys. The Spartan king even arranged for Agamemnon khổng lồ marry his daughter Clytemnestra while Menelaus married his other daughter Helen. Tyndareus made all the Greek leaders swear lớn recognise Helen as Menelaus" rightful wife and to protect his daughter from harm. Agamemnon and Menelaus then returned khổng lồ Mycenae to giảm giá khuyến mãi with Thyestes & Aegisthus. Agamemnon thus became the king of Mycenae while Menelaus became Tyndareus" heir. Consequently, Menelaus eventually became the king of Sparta in most sources of the myth but Aeschylus (c. 525 - c. 456 BCE), the writer of Greek tragedy, does have him living in Argos. Menelaus and Helen had one daughter, Hermione. The curse on the house of Atreus was not quite finished, though, & so the Trojan War began.


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The Trojan War

Menelaus appears as one of the heroes of the Trojan War story told in Greek literature, oral legends, và all forms of art from sculpture to pottery. In legend, Menelaus is wealthy & hospitable but he is also one of the main reasons the war happened in the first place. True, he was the victim when his wife Helen, said to lớn be the most beautiful woman in Greece, was abducted by the Trojan prince Paris và whisked off to Troy. Paris, who was visiting Sparta on a friendly diplomatic visit, had claimed Helen as a prize from Aphrodite after he had selected the goddess in a beauty contest with her fellow goddesses Hera và Athena, held at the wedding of Peleus & Thetis. Eager to lớn get his wife back, Menelaus appealed khổng lồ his brother Agamemnon, by now king of Mycenae & the most powerful ruler in the Greek world. Agamemnon, eager for war, booty and revenge, reminded the Greek leaders of their oath khổng lồ protect Helen & galvanised such Greek city-states as Athens, Corinth, Rhodes, và Argos into action. The massive army set sail for Troy in a mighty fleet of ships.

The Greeks themselves considered the Trojan War to lớn have occurred in the 13th century BCE. This date is actually confirmed by excavations at the site of Troy (aka Ilium) in Turkey, especially the layer known as Troy VI (c. 1750-1300 BCE), which shows the city then had great walls & towers. Further, there is evidence of a conflict in the khung of fire destruction and bronze arrowheads embedded into the walls. The Mycenaean civilization of Greece and the Hittites of Anatolia likely frequently clashed over control of trade routes và attempts at colonization in the region, although it is highly unlikely such a decade-long war as the Trojan War ever took place.


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The real-life conflicts in the eastern Mediterranean, then, likely inspired the legend of the Trojan War, told most famously in Homer"s Iliad. This epic poem was written sometime in the 8th century BCE, and it covers only the last 52 days of the 10-year Trojan War. Amongst the fighting men were such heroes as Achilles, Odysseus, và Ajax. On the Trojan"s side were great warriors lượt thích Hector, brother of Paris. Even the gods got involved in the greatest war yet seen with Athena, Poseidon, and Hephaistos amongst those supporting the Greeks. The Trojans could gọi on the support and occasional intervention of such gods as Apollo, Aphrodite, and Ares.

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Menelaus vs. Paris

When Menelaus & Agamemnon arrived with their armies, the first và most disappointing sight was the mighty walls of the đô thị of Troy. These great defences resulted in the conflict becoming one of siege warfare interspersed with some kích hoạt on the plain in front of the đô thị when the Trojans risked a sortie or two. In the Iliad, Menelaus is portrayed as a courageous fighter and man of honour but he is not quite put in the đứng top rank of warriors. He is seen as being a bit too lenient, as for example in the episode when he seeks lớn spare the life of Adrestus but Agamemnon disagrees and the Trojan is killed.


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One of the highlight battles was that between Menelaus & Paris in single combat (Book 3 of the Iliad), called by the Spartan king khổng lồ settle the war there & then và decide who would keep Helen. Menelaus, referred to lớn by Homer as "master of the war-cry," faces Paris, wearing slightly flashy and inappropriate armour, while Helen looks on from the walls of Troy. The two warriors draw lots to lớn see who will have first throw with their spear. Paris wins và throws first but his spear lands harmlessly into the shield of Menelaus. The Greek king then throws his weapon with tremendous force & the spear shoots right through the shield of Paris và carries on through khổng lồ pierce his armour. Fortunately for Paris, he sways at the last moment và avoids certain death. However, Menelaus is not finished and with his sword he strikes a fearful blow on the Trojan prince"s helmet. The sword shatters and falls in pieces into the dust. Menelaus then grabs Paris" helmet with his bare hands and proceeds to drag him from the field of combat. Choking as his helmet strap is wrapped around his neck, Paris is only saved through the intervention of Aphrodite who breaks the strap and, covering the prince in a thick mist, spirits her favourite back to the safety of his perfumed bedroom.


Menelaus next crops up in the battle when Hector, "tamer of horses," son of king Priam & the greatest Trojan warrior, challenges any Greek lớn combat. Menelaus is keen khổng lồ accept, but Agamemnon persuades him not to. Instead, Ajax, having drawn lots for the honour, marches out to meet the prince. The pair clash but without a decisive blow, and Ajax proves the master. Darkness then calls a halt khổng lồ the fight, và they part on peaceful terms. Menelaus does get to lớn fight Hector later when the pair squabble over the toàn thân of the fallen Euphorbos.

Reunited with Helen

The war then rumbles on with Achilles finally getting into the action and killing Hector in a duel to lớn the death. The Iliad ends there but the story continues in such sources as the Epic Cycle (7th-6th century BCE) with Achilles being struck and killed by an arrow khổng lồ his heel, fired by Paris. Philoctetes, the famed archer, gained revenge for Achilles by fatally shooting Paris with the legendary bow of Hercules. The Greeks finally managed lớn get inside Troy by building a huge wooden horse which the Trojans think is left as a gift from their seemingly departed enemy. In reality, the horse is full of Greek warriors - including Menelaus - and they open the gates of the thành phố to their followers, và a general rout of Troy follows. The Greeks had won the war. Menelaus and Helen are reunited but, according to some versions of the story, the Spartan king first draws his sword và intends lớn strike down his wife before having a rethink & embracing her. This scene, with Menelaus holding a sword and standing by Helen, is sometimes seen on painted Greek pottery; there is even one example where he has dropped his sword clearly indicating a change of heart. The reconciled pair then return home - eventually.


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The Odyssey Home

In book four of Homer"s Odyssey, also written in the 8th century BCE, Menelaus meets Telemachus, the son of Odysseus, after the Trojan War. Telemachus arrives at Sparta searching for his lost father, not seen since the kết thúc of the war. The king, once more playing his part of host well, gives a dinner. Menelaus does not know the fate of Odysseus but he recounts the episode of the great Wooden Horse which the Greeks used to enter the đô thị of Troy và win the war. Menelaus then recounts his own mini-Odyssey after leaving Troy which is perhaps a mythologising of the real-life actions of Mycenaean pirates and colonists in the late Bronze Age Mediterranean.

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Menelaus & Helen
Bibi Saint-Pol (Public Domain)

First, Menelaus lands on Crete after his ships are dashed against the rocky shores because of a storm. Next arriving in Egypt, the king spends many years there. Unable to lớn gain favourable winds to lớn get home, Menelaus makes trips khổng lồ Cyprus & then the đô thị of Sidon in Phoenicia, land of fine textiles & silverware, some of which the Spartan receives as souvenirs. Next is North Africa (Libya) which he describes as a bountiful land with sheep which give birth three times a year và where there is never a shortage of milk, cheese or meat. Ethiopia is also visited during this time, and the king"s treasure trove grows.

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Finally, Menelaus meets with the sea god Proteus, aka the "Old Man of the Sea", who lives near Pharos. Menelaus was keen khổng lồ ask Proteus questions such as how to catch a breeze that will take him trang chủ to Greece. Unfortunately, the god kept changing shape khổng lồ elude the Spartan king. Menelaus & his men thus disguise themselves as seals & mix with Proteus" flock of that animal. The Spartans then leap out and grab Proteus but the sea god transforms himself into many different creatures to elude capture, first a lion, then a snake, panther, & boar. Still captive, Proteus transforms himself into water & finally a tree.


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Proteus gives up his act and eventually tells Menelaus he must perform a great sacrifice lớn the gods in Egypt khổng lồ gain those favourable winds. He is also informed that Odysseus is being held in the clutches of the Nymph Calypso on her remote island. Back at the Spartan dinner, Telemachus thanks his host & then goes on his way khổng lồ continue the search for his father.

Proteus had predicted that Menelaus would not die but one day arrive at Elysium, the Greek version of paradise which is located at the ends of the earth and reserved only for the virtuous & worthy. Before he achieves this land of peace, Menelaus does perform the necessary sacrifices & finally get back trang chủ to Sparta. Orestes the son of Agamemnon then marries Hermione, Menelaus" daughter và so the two cities of Mycenae và Sparta were united under a single king. When Menelaus left this earth, he was succeeded as king of Sparta by Orestes.

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Map of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East, c. 1300 BCE
Jan van der Crabben (CC BY-NC-SA)

Herodotus" Histories

Menelaus is mentioned in the c. 415 BCE Histories of Herodotus (c. 484 - 425/413 BCE). In Book 2:118-119 of this work, the Greek historian describes a slightly different story from Homer which he claims khổng lồ have heard first-hand from Egyptian priests. Paris (called Alexandros by Herodotus) does abduct Helen but the ship carrying the fugitive pair is blown off course và lands in Egypt, never making it lớn Troy. The Egyptian king Proteus (not a sea god for Herodotus), then holds them in custody until Menelaus arrives. The Greek army does anyway lay siege to the city of Troy despite the Trojans insisting that Helen is not there but in Egypt. When Troy falls và Helen is not found, Menelaus then sails to Egypt khổng lồ see if the Trojans had been telling the truth all along. Arriving at Memphis, Helen is reunited with her husband. Menelaus is keen khổng lồ get home but unreasonable weather keeps his ships in port. To change the weather, và appease the gods, the Spartan king sacrifices two Egyptian children, shocking his hosts who then pursue Menelaus khổng lồ Libya but eventually thảm bại him.

Other Works, Art & Cult

Menelaus appears in the 415 BCE play Trojan Women by Euripides (c. 484-407 BCE) where he has a much weaker character than in Homer"s work. In the play, Helen defends herself in a trial and blames the gods for intervening in human affairs. Menelaus comes across as a simple man merely keen lớn have his beautiful wife back. The king appears as an even more disagreeable character in Euripides" Andromache (c. 425 BCE) và Orestes (c. 408 BCE), as well as the tragedy Ajax by Sophocles (c. 496 - c. 406 BCE).

In the visual arts, Menelaus appears in the north metopes of the Parthenon (447-432 BCE) with various other scenes from the Trojan War. The Spartan king alongside Helen (typically in confrontation) or leading her away or in the act of reconciliation, & the duel with Paris were popular themes for both red- & black-figure pottery painters.

Finally, at Therapne near Sparta, the king was part of a cult along with Helen with whom he was believed to nói qua a tomb. The tomb was built c. 700 BCE near a 15th-century BCE Mycenaean "palace" and consisted of a large rectangle of ashlar blocks with a small temple, all mix on a mound và approached by a ramp. Excavations have revealed the site received dedicatory offerings lớn the pair và was in use until the 1st century BCE.